Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) is an extension of AFM. The technique was first published in 1991 by Nonnenmacher and coworkers. Using KPFM, images can be recorded that contain information on the local work function or local contact potential difference between tip and sample.
Although all Nanite systems with an SPM S200 controller and newer Easyscan 2 AFM systems are in principle capable of performing KPFM, the FlexAFM has demonstrated best KPFM performance and is therefore the instrument of choice for this type of measurement.
For a detailed description of requirements and procedures, please contact Nanosurf support.
Local charges that were placed on an insulating (oxide) surface layer in a "Swiss cross" pattern. Image courtesy: Marcin Kisiel, Thilo Glatzel and students of the Nanocurriculum of the University of Basel.
KPFM signal (top) and simultaneously recorded Topography data (bottom) are shown.