Orane Guillaume-Gentil, Christoph G. Gäbelein, Stefanie Schmieder, Vincent Martinez, Tomaso Zambelli, Markus Künzler & Julia A. Vorholt
The direct delivery of molecules and the sampling of endogenous compounds into and from living cells provide powerful means to modulate and study cellular functions. Intracellular injection and extraction remain challenging for fungal cells that possess a cell wall. The most common methods for intracellular delivery into fungi rely on the initial degradation of the cell wall to generate protoplasts, a step that represents a major bottleneck in terms of time, efficiency, standardization, and cell viability. Here, we show that fluidic force microscopy enables the injection of solutions and cytoplasmic fluid extraction into and out of individual fungal cells, including unicellular model yeasts and multicellular filamentous fungi. The approach is strain- and cargo-independent and opens new opportunities for manipulating and analyzing fungi. We also perturb individual hyphal compartments within intact mycelial networks to study the cellular response at the single cell level.