Application & technical notes

This is a selection of our more comprehensive application notes, and technical notes. Please click through to read more.

Advanced Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM)

Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is one of the essential electrical modes in scanning probe microscopy. It is measuring a fundamental physical property of materials – a surface potential

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Characterization of Polyethylene with DriveAFM

Polyethylene (PE) is a semicrystalline polymer and is one of the most widely produced plastics globally for use in consumer goods and packaging with wide-ranging applications. Shopping bags, milk b...

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Exploring Nanoscale Organization of Normal Alkanes on HOPG Substrate with DriveAFM

AFM studies of normal and ultra-long alkanes reveal a set of fine structural features related to the lateral chain folding and lamellar architecture in their layers on HOPG. The formation of these...

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Studies of Self-Organization of Semi-Fluorinated Alkanes on Different Substrates with DriveAFM

The capabilities of visualization of semi-fluorinated alkanes with dynamic mode AFM are demonstrated in this document. Diverse nanoscale structures were observed in adsorbates of semi-fluorinated a...

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Determining mass of individual micron-sized particles using PicoBalance and FluidFM® probes

Micron-sized particles are commercially available in a wide range of materials such as polymers, (magnetic) metals, glass and ceramics. They have applications in biology, medicine, material science...

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Evaluating AFM as an analysis tool for graphene

Graphene is the most famous member of the 2D materials family: a sheet of covalently bonded carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice in which the thickness has been reduced to a single atom. This unique...

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Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM)

Over the last few decades, the drive to miniaturize electronics has increased the demand for nano-electrical characterization methods. Understanding the local electronic material properties, such a...

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Variable magnetic field generator

The variable magnetic field generator is an accessory for Nanosurf’s CoreAFM, FlexAFM and DriveAFM. The VMFSH enables AFM measurements in a variable in-plane magnetic field.

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In-situ study of anti-wear tribofilm formation

Prashant Mittal and Nitya Nand Gosvami, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. Tribofilms Tribofilms are thin tribochemical films formed under high contact pressure and temperature at...

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Piezo-response Force Microscopy (PFM)

Piezo Response Force Microscopy (PFM) The word “piezo” is derived from the Greek word piezein, meaning “to press tightly”. Piezoelectricity is the ability of a material to convert mechanical...

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CleanDrive: Photothermal Excitation of the Cantilever

Nanosurf introduces CleanDrive - a clean and reliable way to oscillate an AFM cantilever using photothermal excitation. CleanDrive uses a near IR 785 nm laser aimed at the base of the cantilever to...

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Magnetic force microscopy (MFM)

Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is one of the modes of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). As the name suggests, it is used for mapping magnetic properties. MFM probes local magnetic fields on the nan...

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Nanomechanical indentation measurements with force spectroscopy

In the realm of nanomechanical measurements, AFM is especially suited to working with soft materials due to its piconewton force resolution and sub-nanometer vertical displacement accuracy. One of...

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Advanced cantilever-based techniques for virus research

During last century humans have endured multiple severe viral outbreaks including the Spanish flu and other influenza epidemics, HIV, SARS-CoV, MERS, Ebola and the recent SARS-CoV2. During this per...

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Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)

Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), also known as surface potential microscopy, is one member of a suite of electrical characterization methods available in atomic force microscopes. It maps the...

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Conductive AFM (C-AFM) measurements on a polished IC surface with multiple transistor contacts

Introduction Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) is a standard manufacturing process employed in the semiconductor industry during the fabrication of integrated circuits and memory disks. When...

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Out of plane piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) on Lithium Niobate

Lithium Niobite (LiNbO3) is an optically transparent, piezo responsive material used, for example, in piezo sensors or in mobile phones. We tested a LiNbO3 sample (PFM03, obtained from TipsNano, E...

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Cell-cell adhesion force studied with Flex-FPM

Cells are the building blocks of life. Some cell types thrive best individually, suspended. Most of them however are adhering cells. These cells are integrated in a larger, 3D matrix like tissue. A...

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EFM of aluminum dots on gold substrate

This application note describes an example of electrostatic force (EFM) measurements on a sample of aluminum dots deposited on a...

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Phase image of a SBS-PS polymer blend

Polymer blends are frequently used for preparation of e.g. thin films instead of the individual homopolymers, as the blends exhibit more...

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Nanomechanical analysis of alginate hydrogels

Since the advent of biocompatible hydrogels in the early 1960s these materials have attracted a lot of interest from biomaterial rese...

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Thermal conductivity of polymer-embedded carbon fibers

Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) allows measurement of local temperatu...

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Flex-ANA measurement on gelatin hydrogels

During the past decade it has become more and more evident that (stem) cell differentiation does not solely depend...

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Flex-ANA measurement on medical tubings

Many medical devices consist of or include tubings, e.g. catheters, injection or infusion sets or urologic...

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Force mapping of living cultured cells

Mechanobiology is an emerging research area that deals with the effect of changing physical for...

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AFM force spectroscopy on a polymer blend

AFM-based force spectroscopy was used to characterize a polymer blend consisting of polystyrene (PS) and polybutadiene (PB). Data analysis or an array of force distance curves revealed differences...

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Lateral force microscopy on polystyrene-polybutadiene blend

Lateral force imaging mode was used to image local friction differences between the two polymers. Polystyrene and polybutadiene are shown to have quite different surface properties.

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Scanning thermal microscopy

This is an example of a scanning thermal measurement performed with a FlexAFM scan head equipped with a VertiSense temperature sensing cantilever from AppNano. Temperature shown as co...

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Example of single-cell force spectroscopy using FluidFM

This application note shows an example of a single cell force spectroscopy experiment using FluidFM. It nicely demonstrates that FluidFM is capa...

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Colloidal spectroscopy with FluidFM®

Mechanical properties have shown to be important for fundamental cellular processes like...

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Single Cell Force Spectroscopy

Advantages of FluidFM compared to classical AFM methods Cell adhesion to surfaces represents the basis for niche colonization and cell survival. Single-cell force-spectroscopy studies, however, ...

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Spotting and lithography with FluidFM

In cell biology, micropatterning is becoming a widely accepted technique to address cellular behavior at the single-cell level. The ability to guide cell growth by local suppression or stimulation, ...

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Bulk copper deposition on gold studied in an EC-AFM application using the FlexAFM

This report effectively demonstrates the ability of the FlexAFM to monitor morphological changes during electrodeposition of material on an electrode surface.

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Analyzing large surfaces using AFM stitching

This application note describes the automated stitching feature of the Nanosurf Nanite AFM scripting interface in combination with the Nanosurf Report Expert analysis software. AFM measurements on...

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