Application notes

This is a selection of our more comprehensive application notes. Please click through to read more.

Magnetic force microscopy (MFM)

Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is one of the modes of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). As the name suggests, it is used for mapping magnetic properties. MFM probes local magnetic fields on the nan...

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Nanomechanical indentation measurements with force spectroscopy

In the realm of nanomechanical measurements, AFM is especially suited to working with soft materials due to its piconewton force resolution and sub-nanometer vertical displacement accuracy. One of...

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Advanced cantilever-based techniques for virus research

During last century humans have endured multiple severe viral outbreaks including the Spanish flu and other influenza epidemics, HIV, SARS-CoV, MERS, Ebola and the recent SARS-CoV2. During this per...

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Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)

Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), also known as surface potential microscopy, is one member of a suite of electrical characterization methods available in atomic force microscopes. It maps the...

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Conductive AFM (C-AFM) measurements on a polished IC surface with multiple transistor contacts

Introduction Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) is a standard manufacturing process employed in the semiconductor industry during the fabrication of integrated circuits and memory disks. When...

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Out of plane piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) on Lithium Niobate

Lithium Niobite (LiNbO3) is an optically transparent, piezo responsive material used, for example, in piezo sensors or in mobile phones. We tested a LiNbO3 sample (PFM03, obtained from TipsNano, E...

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Cell-cell adhesion force studied with Flex-FPM

Cells are the building blocks of life. Some cell types thrive best individually, suspended. Most of them however are adhering cells. These cells are integrated in a larger, 3D matrix like tissue. A...

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EFM of aluminum dots on gold substrate

This application note describes an example of electrostatic force (EFM) measurements on a sample of aluminum dots deposited on a...

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Nanomechanical analysis of alginate hydrogels

Since the advent of biocompatible hydrogels in the early 1960s these materials have attracted a lot of interest from biomaterial rese...

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